## Table of Contents

So, I fell down a Wiki-hole today and figured I could get a blog post out of it.For the curious: AuthaGraph projection → Lee conformal world in a tetrahedron → Dixon elliptic functions.

Specifically, I encountered the *Dixon elliptic functions* \(\mathrm{sm}\) and \(\mathrm{cm}.\) These satisfy a generalization of the Pythagorean identity \[\sin^2 z + \cos^2 z = 1 \longrightarrow \operatorname{sm}^3 z + \operatorname{cm}^3 z = 1 \] with \(\operatorname{sm} 0 = 0, \operatorname{cm} 0 = 1.\) I found myself wondering about an obvious generalization — a sequence of functions \(\mathrm{sm}_n, \mathrm{cn}_n\) satisfying \[\begin{equation*}\operatorname{sm}_n^n z + \operatorname{cm}_n^n z = 1.\label{1}\tag{1}\end{equation*}\]

It took me a minute to find the prior art — the original manuscriptIt’s in PostScript; you’ll probably need `ps2pdf`

to read it. was written by a Swedish high school teacher, Erik Lundberg, in the nineteenth century. He called these generalizations “hypergoniometric functions.” (*Goniometry*From the Greek, meaning “angle measure”. is an old-fashioned word for trigonometry.) He defines the correct \(\mathrm{sm}_n\) and \(\mathrm{cm}_n\) but doesn’t do much with them.

## Motivation

We start from the identity \(\eqref{1}.\) We would also like to preserve the relation between the area and arc length of a sector of a circle; to wit, if the curve \(x^n + y^n = 1\) is parametrized by \((\operatorname{cm_n} \theta, \operatorname{sm_n} \theta),\) we desire \[\begin{equation*} \iint_R \mathrm dA = \frac12 \int_0^\theta x(\theta)y’(\theta) - x’(\theta)y(\theta) ~\mathrm d\theta = \frac{\theta}2.\end{equation*}\] This leads to the usual definitionSee: Shelupsky, David. “A generalization of the trigonometric functions”. *The American Mathematical Monthly* 66(10) (1959): 879-884. of \(\mathrm{sm}_n\) and \(\mathrm{cm}_n\) as the unique functions satisfying the IVP
\[\begin{align*} &\frac{\mathrm d}{\mathrm dz}\operatorname{sm}_n z = \operatorname{cm}_n^{n-1} z,\newline & \frac{\mathrm d}{\mathrm dz} \operatorname{cm}_n z = -\operatorname{sm}_n^{n-1} z \newline
\text{subject to} \quad & \operatorname{sm}_n 0 = 0, \newline
& \operatorname{cm}_n 0 = 1.
\end{align*}\]

## Series coefficients

The easiest way to calculate the series coefficients of these two in the general case is probably through generating functions — taking higher derivatives gets irritating quickly, since they depend crucially on the value of \(n.\)

Hence we write \[\begin{equation*} \operatorname{sm}_n z = \sum_{k=0}^\infty s_{n,k} \frac{z^k}{k!}, \quad \operatorname{cm}_n z = \sum_{k=0}^\infty c_{n,k} \frac{z^k}{k!}. \end{equation*}\]

Substituting into the defining IVP and equating coefficients gives the recurrenceYou will need to use discrete convolution to check this.

Also recall that the differentiation operator on exponential GFs is the forward shift operator for sequences. \[\begin{align*}
s_{n,k+1} &= \sum_{a_1 + \cdots + a_{n-1} = k} \binom{k}{a_1, a_2, \dots, a_{n-1}} \prod_{i=1}^{n-1} c_{n, a_i}, \newline
c_{n,k+1} &= -\sum_{a_1 + \cdots + a_{n-1} = k} \binom{k}{a_1, a_2, \dots, a_{n-1}} \prod_{i=1}^{n-1} s_{n, a_i}.
\end{align*}\]

It’s not difficult to write some Python code for this:

```
from functools import lru_cache
@lru_cache()
def factorial(n):
if n < 0:
raise ValueError
if n == 0:
return 1
return n * factorial(n - 1)
def multinomial(n, A):
if sum(A) != n:
raise ValueError
num = factorial(n)
den = 1
for a in A:
den *= factorial(a)
return num // den
def partitions(n, parts):
"""Enumerate partitions of `n` into `parts` or fewer parts, regarding
differently ordered partitions as distinct."""
if n < 0 or parts < 1:
return
if parts == 1:
yield (n,)
return
for term in range(n + 1):
for partition in partitions(n - term, parts - 1):
yield (term,) + partition
@lru_cache()
def c(order, index):
if index == 0:
return 1
coeffsum = 0
for A in partitions(index - 1, order - 1):
coeff = multinomial(index - 1, A)
for a in A:
coeff *= s(order, a)
coeffsum += coeff
return -coeffsum
@lru_cache()
def s(order, index):
if index == 0:
return 0
coeffsum = 0
for A in partitions(index - 1, order - 1):
coeff = multinomial(index - 1, A)
for a in A:
coeff *= c(order, a)
coeffsum += coeff
return coeffsum
```

These values for the Dixon functions agree with the OEIS:

```
>>> [s(3, i) for i in range(20)]
[0, 1, 0, 0, -4, 0, 0, 160, 0, 0, -20800, 0, 0, 6476800, 0, 0, -3946624000, 0, 0, 4161608704000]
>>> [c(3, i) for i in range(20)]
[1, 0, 0, -2, 0, 0, 40, 0, 0, -3680, 0, 0, 880000, 0, 0, -435776000, 0, 0, 386949376000, 0]
```

And for the fourth-order functions, which have no name that I was able to find.The signs aren’t even standardized!

```
>>> [s(4, i) for i in range(20)]
[0, 1, 0, 0, 0, -18, 0, 0, 0, 14364, 0, 0, 0, -70203672, 0, 0, 0, 1192064637456, 0, 0]
>>> [c(4, i) for i in range(20)]
[1, 0, 0, 0, -6, 0, 0, 0, 2268, 0, 0, 0, -7434504, 0, 0, 0, 95227613712, 0, 0, 0]
```